The life and activities of many great personalities, who were born and matured in the land of ancient Mawaraunnahr, modern Uzbekistan, had attained a profound fame in Islamic world thanks to their huge legacy. The names of Imam Al-Bukhariy and Imam at-Termiziy, Imam Motridiy and Bakhouddin Nakshband, scholars such as Muhammad Al-Khorazmiy and Akhmad Farghoniy, Abu Raikhon Beruniy and Abu Ali Ibn Sina, Mirzo Ulughbek, Alisher Navoiy and Mirza Muhammad Babur are closely linked with Islamic and world culture and civilization.
The modern Uzbek nation is gaining the power and spiritual strength by restoring and rebuilding the heritage of famous historical personalities.
People of Uzbekistan rightly consider these personalities as the common heritage, an example of the scientific devotion and symbol of spiritual and national pride for all neighboring Central and South Asian countries.
The memories about abovementioned scholars and Ulemas as well as famous rulers and military leaders such as Amir Temur, Muhammad Babur, Spitamen, Mukanna and Jalaluddin Khwarezmi who once fought for liberation and against occupation of Mawaraunnahr and Turkestan have returned to their descendants thanks to the Independence of Uzbekistan.
Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur
Jalaliddin Manguberdi Khwarezmi
Abu Abdullah al-Khorazmi
Abu Rayhan Beruni
Abu Ali ibn Sina
Abu Iso Muhammad at-Tirmizi
Abu Mansur al-Moturidi
Amir Temur is known in the history not only as a conqueror, but also as a great statesman, experienced warlord, builder and protector of science and culture.
In the middle of XIV century Mawaraunnahr and Turkestan were divided apparently into ten belligerent beks (small kingdoms).
It was Temur who had to overcome with it and after hard and long battle (1360 — 1370) liberated the country from Mongol domination. Ten years were required to overcome the resistance of separate ulus (clan) rulers. By 1380 Temur united the country and established centralized feudal state of that time.
The overcome of feudal division and creation of a new centralized state at the same time promoted to the development of agriculture, handcraft and trade and consequently it gave the opportunity to raise the science and culture in the land of Mawaraunnahr and Turkestan. Later on, it became a worldwide famous economically and culturally developed country.
The state established by Temur was ruled on the basis of law and its institutions were comprised of honest, experienced and initiative people.
Running the country Temur strictly kept to orders and regulations of Islam and laws." The building of my state - he often remembered - I built based on Islam and laws". He warned:"... a ruler who does not keep the religion, will not be able to keep his position and power for a long time".
During Temur's period everybody without exception whether he is a tsar, emir or simple man were equal to the law. Everybody was rewarded for conscientious service and was punished for offences, abuses.
Great importance in Temur's activity have played consultations and meetings with witty and experienced people "Ten parts of my actions I solved consulting with others, and only one part by my sword" – he had said.
Temur - builder, protector of science and culture.
One of Temur's greatest merits for the country and nation is considered to be his activity as a builder, protector of science and culture.
As it is known in the result of feudal division and Monghol invasion 1218—1220, 1360 and 1365 Mawaraunnahr and Turkestan were razed and devastated. Most cities such as Samarkand and Benaket were ruined, devastation also touched Bukhara, Karshi, Kesh and other cities. Being a ruler Temur began to restore the cities and villages and devastated economy. During 1371 —72 walls (the length of which was seven km), fortress and other defence erections of Samarkand were restored. Two splendid palaces Kok—saray and Bustan —saray were built under Temur's order. Streets, squares, and city bazars (markets) were well-appointed; philantropy and divine services places and mausoleum of eminent Muslim leaders were restored. New mosques, medresas, parks with palaces and channels were built. Temur also erected mausoleums for Uldja Khanum, Tughluq Tekin, Kutlugh Turkan Aga and Shirin Becki. Mosque in Shahi Zinda, bazar in Char Su, shops, workshops along the streets crossing the city from one part to another were built. Rukhabad mausoleum. Bibi Khanum mosque and medresa, Gur Emir mausoleum and others were erected.
Around Samarkand Temur built several beautiful cities Misr (Egypt), Dimishk (Damask), Baghdad, Sultaniya and Shiraz and twelve beautiful parks with palaces in it as Baghi Dilkusha; Baghi Shamal, Baghi Bihisht, Baghi buldi and others were among them. Temur restored and well planed his native city Kesh (Shahrisabz). He restored walls and fortresses, cemeteries of Muslim's distinguished persons. One of the greatest construction erected in Kesh, were Ak-saray-(1380-1404) and Dar us-saadat (1380), mausoleum of king Jahangir.
Temur also planned and organized Yassi (Turkestan) and Shash (Tashkent) cities. The magnificent mausoleums to Hoja Ahmad Yassavi (died 1166 — 67) and to Zangi Ota near Tashkent are the examples of his buildings. Temur also carried out activities as a builder, in conquered countries. For example, he twice restored Baghdad, fortified Derbent city, he rebuilt with the stones Bailakan city in south Azerbaijan, laid channels and irrigated Karabah and Mughansk steppes, restored caravansary on the way of Middle Asia to India.
Historian A.U.Yakubovskyi knew well the history of Middle Asia and especially the history of Temur and Temurids. Comparing Temur with Mahmud Gaznevi (998 - 1030), the figure of the same value as Temur he says:' "...The huge wealth, that passed as the booty through Mahmud's hands didn't saturate economic life of Gaznevid state. Another thing - Temur. He as a good, economical landlord drew all that had any value to Mawarannahr, the center of his wide kingdom, which he ruled alone. He brought there not only various material values but largely used captive specialists - craftsmen, artists, architects, scientists - he did it, not as Mawarannahr lacking of these specialists, but he considered that in the result of influx of culture, handcrafts become richer, arts and sciences will be flourish". Amir Temur made a great contribution to the development of the culture and science.
Study of prophets life (Khadis), Koran, jurisprudence, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, history, philosophy, literature, music, poetry and other branches of science developed in his time.
Samarkand had its original school of miniature. The wall pictures in Tahti Karacha palaces, Bagi—Davlatbad and other palaces of Temur also the miniatures of divan manuscript of Firdousi: "Shah name" and "Anthology of Persian poets" (end of XIY century) witness about the high mastery of Mawarannahr artists and calligraphers. The history has kept some names: usta Abdulhai, Pir Ahmad, Bagi Shamali and Bangir Tabrizi.
In XIV - XV centuries applied arts had a good progress in Mawaraunnahr and Turkistan cities. Gold seamstress, gold, silver, bronze minters, board carvers and their works were famous all over the world. The arts of these craftsmen was engraved an Shahi Zinda, Gur Amir buildings and other monuments of Samarkand, Kesh, Bukhara, Yassa and other parts of Middle Asia and also preserved in the museums of our cities and Europe.
The history of Temur and Temurids, that accounts 466 years — it is not only the history of Temur and his descendants, but first of all it is the history of the people of Middle Asia, Middle and Near East and South Asia, its real study comes from nowadays, when our republic got the political independence. But in Europe and America the study of Temur and Temurids epoch was conducted long ago, but it is too insufficient. We have not yet revealed the essence of many works, dedicated to this epoch and that is kept in world libraries. We have yet to learnt the essence of many letters where Temur exchanged with leaders of Italy, Spain, Turkey, French, England and China.
ZAHIRUDDIN MUHAMMAD BABUR
Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur, popularly known as “Babur”, was the founder of Baburid’s or Mughal Empire. He was born in Fergana, now in Uzbekistan on February 14, 1483. The empire founded by him lasted 331 years.
Babur was a descendant of Amir Timur on his father’s side and of Chingiz Khan on his mother’s side.
Mirza Zahiruddin Babur being from his childhood in love with literature, art, nature's beauties, like all the princes - Timurids was getting familiarized with the rudiments of that knowledge under the leading of eminent teachers in his father's palace. But his untroubled childhood didn't last long. When Babur’s father Umar Sheikh Mirza died in 1494, he inherited the ancestral kingdom of Fergana.
He was only 12 years old at that time. Babur faced many hardships during the period of his life. He was driven out of his father’s state and for two years he became a wanderer. 1504 he came to Afghanistan where he assumed the title of Padishah, and later became a ruler of India in 1525. Babur didn’t live long to rule his Kingdom. He died in Agra on December 26, 1530.
Babur’s personality can be judged by his own memoirs “Tuzk-i-Baburi”, also known as Babur Namah, written in Turkic language personally transcribed by his son Humayun and afterwards translated into Persian during the reign of Akbar. It is considered among the most enthralling and romantic literary works of all times. Babur possessed the qualities of a born leader.
“To respect brothers, local laws and customs and not to promote interethnic discords and resort to advice of elderly people”, bequeathed great Babur to his son Humayun.
During 1826 – 1985 “Babur Namah” was translated four times into English (1826, 1905, 1921, 1922) three times into French (1878, 1980, 1985) and once into German. Among them there are such novels “Boburhan”, which was written in Paris in 1940, “Babur-Tiger” in New York in 1961, “Babur and his ancestors or Great Moguls” in New York in 1980. In 1948 – 1949 “Babur Namah” was edited in two volumes in Uzbekistan. And in 1960, 1989 it was republished again. After the Independence of Uzbekistan the “Babur Namah” was republished in full version in 2002.
Mirza Babur will be remembered as a great statesman, scientist, patron of science and literature, who strengthened Islam and built many mosques and respected the minorities. He contributed to arts, music and poetry, architecture and agriculture, development of the nations in Central and South Asia.
His love of nature is evident from a passage of his memoirs describing the panoramic view of blossoms during spring in Sindh:
"In some places sheets of yellow flowers bloomed in plots; in others sheets of red flowers in plots; in some red and yellow bloomed together. We sat on a mound near the camp to enjoy the sight. There were flowers on all sides of the mound, yellow here, red there, as if arranged regularly to form a sextuple. On two sides there were fewer flowers but as far as the eye reached, flowers were in bloom. In spring near Parashawar the fields of flowers are very beautiful indeed."
After the independence of Uzbekistan much have been done to study the heritage left by our great ancestor.
International Foundation named after Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur was established in Andijan region of Uzbekistan in 1993, where the Babur was born. The goals of the International Foundation is to learn, restore and perpetuate the names and works of our great ancestors. The fund has already organized over 10 scientific expeditions worldwide. The routes of expeditions with the length 300.000 km passed through 20 countries of world.
The Emperor, the poet and scholar Zahiruddin Babur during all his life was engaged in spreading knowledge and education, creating parks and gardens, roads and madrassahs as well as promoting tolerance and harmony among people with different confessions having their own cultures.
JALALIDDIN MANGUBERDI KHWAREZMI
The National hero of Uzbekistan who had bravely defended his homeland from Chingiz Khan, the Mongol conqueror. His fearless fight against overwhelming Chingiz Khan’s army has made his name a symbol of bravery and courage.
His full name is Jalaliddin ibn Alovuddin Muhammad. He is the last emperor of the Khwarezm Dynasty (1220-1231).
During the invasion of Mawaraunnakh (nowadays Uzbekistan) by Chingiz Khan, the king of Khwarezm Mohammad appointed his son Jalaliddin as a new King of the Empire.
In November 25, 1221 Jalaluddin with his 4000 soldiers had a fierce fight with Chingiz Khan’s Army at Sindh River. Unfortunately Jalaliddin had fewer in numbers army and had to end unequal battle and withdraw crossing the Sindh River towards the desert “Chol”.
Even Chingiz Khan acknowledged Jalaluddin’s bravery and told his son’s that “a true son must be like Jalaluddin”.
Jalaluddin’s 800th birth anniversary has been celebrated in Uzbekistan in 1998.
A monument of Jalaluddin Manguberdi has been erected in Khwarezm Region of Uzbekistan. Major streets, alleys and organizations were named after Jalaluddin.
The order of “Jalaliddin Manguberdi” for extraordinary bravery in defending the Motherland has been instituted in Uzbekistan in 2003 by the order of President of Uzbekistan Mr. Islam Karimov.
IМAМ AL-BUKHARI (R.A.)
Abu Abdullah Muhammad Al Bukhari was born in Shawal 13, 194 AH, (June 20, 810 AD) in Bukhara. He lost his father at his early ages and was brought up by his mother. He was intelligent, clever and sagacious. He became interested in various sciences from his early childhood, especially in hadith science.
In 825 he started to Hijaz (Saudi Arabia) with his mother and elder brother Ahmad. They first visited Makah and Medina and lived there for 6 years. Then he has lived in Damascus, Baghdad, Basra, Kufa and Cairo. In these cities he has studied hadith and fiqh sciences from most renowned savants and later taught students himself. After coming back from his long journey the scientist continued to live in his home city Bukhara. Seditious and envious people caused an ill - treatment of Emir of Bukhara to the scholar and forced him to leave for Samarkand. In 870 Abu Abdullah died in the village of Hartang near Samarkand and was buried there.
Imam al-Buhari left us vast scientific-spiritual heritage. Most of his works are dedicated to hadith sciences, Imam al-Buhari was renowned with the name "Sahihi Sittah" and is acknowledged by the whole Muslim world. "Al Jami as-sahih" is considered to be a second source after the holy Quran in Islamic teaching dealing with the authentic sayings from the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.). The book was translated into foreign languages. Hundreds of commentaries were devoted to it.
In 1998 on the decree of the Republic of Uzbekistan the 1225's anniversary (on AH) of Bukhari was celebrated worldwide and deep studying of his scientific and moral inheritance has been carried out. Under the leadership of the President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov the mausoleum of the savant was completely rebuilt in the village of Hartang embodying modern and Eastern traditions and now it enjoys a status of one of the most sacred places in the Muslim world.
Al-Khorazmi is one of the scholars who made great contribution to the world science development. Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Muso al-Khorazmi is considered to be born in 783 and died in 850. In Europe he is known as "Algorithmus". It's known that the scientist spent a great part of his scientific activity in Baghdad in "Bait al-hikma". This educational institution was supervised by Caliph Ma'mun and by al-Khorazmi as well.
Muhammad Khorazmi got his primary education in his home town and there he became a scholar. Al-Khorazmi is the founder of several branches and fundamental conceptions of modern mathematics including exact system ration of algebra, simple and complex square equations analytic summarize as well. The word "algebra" used by the world now is derived from "al - djabr va - l - muqobala" the name of his world known book. In Europe the word "al-Djabr" has been varied into "algebra" and stayed unchanged in science.
Al-Khorazmi officially introduced zero (O) to arithmetic, with this modern decimal positional system of numerals spread worldwide. One of his works on numeral system was known as "Algorizm" in Europe and there followed the word "algorithm". The scholar also ever traced in astronomy leaving several scientific articles in diverse spheres of this subject among which is "Zig" namely tables on Astronomy. Al-Khorazmi has a share in the development of geography. "Surat al-ard" ("The appearance of the land") is considered to be one of the first and important works on this sphere.
Only ten of his over twenty works have been survived and they are being kept in several manuscript funds of the world.
ABU ABDULLAH AL-KHORAZMI
(died in 997)
Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Ahmad ibn Usuf al-Khorazmi spent his youth in Hiva, Zamahshar and Qiyat cities of Khorezm. The scientist also lived in Khurosan. He reached the height of his fame when he ministered as a clerk for the minister Abul-Hasan al-Utbiy. With this he became renowned as "al-katib al-Khorazmi". He went on business to Bukhara frequently and conversed with a lot of scholars. Meanwhile thirsty for knowledge scientist earned the right of utilizing an opulent library of emir. Abu Abdullah al-Khorazmi died in 997.
The only known and inherited work of Abu Abdullah al-Khorazmi is "Mafotih al-ulum" (A key to sciences). "Mafotihal ulum" has been considered to have four manuscript copies. Three of them are in the British Museum under the number of 7528, 23429 and 2524, in Berlin library of 1051. In the 60's an American scholar K.Boswart found that there are six more copies of the work in Turkey libraries. All of the six copies are in the libraries of Istambul.
"Mafotihul-ulum" is a particular encyclopedic work composing almost all main sciences of that time. The author explained every science of Middle Ages elucidating each of them.
The learnt man divided sciences into two and severed them into "Arabic" and "non-Arabic". This proves the savant abode by the tradition of dividing sciences into two parts as scholars of his time did.
Generally, the book conveys that Abu Abdullah al-Khorazmi had a good command of natural and mathematic sciences of his time, attempted to enhance their role and attach importance on one side and to enrich philosophy on the other classifying them into theoretical philosophy. "Mafotihul-ulum" is the book of great importance in teaching the culture and spirituality of middle ages.
ABU RAYHAN BERUNI
Abu Rayhan Beruni was one of the most outstanding encyclopedic scientists of the middle ages. He was born in Kot the capital of ancient Khorezm. He spent his youth in his motherland studying various sciences and became a scholar. In 998 he left for Jurjon city because of the political changes in Khorazm. The 998-1004's were the years of explorations and contributions to a science development. One of his essential works "The keepsakes from the ancient people" was written in Jurjon Palace. In 1004-1007 Beruni returned to Khorezm and continued his work at the scientific center opened by Mamun, the king of Khorezm.
After Khorezm was conquered by Mahmud Gaznavi he was taken to Gazna. No matter how his life in Gazna during 1017-1018 was materially and politically difficult Beruni had prosperity in his scientific activity. In 1025 the scientist's work dedicated to the astronomy and geography which is called "Identifying the final limits of place to measure distances between dwelling places" and "Geodesy" in short was completed. His other work "Primary conceptions on Astrology" was written in Gezna in 1029. A year later he finished writing his "Identifying credible and incredible teachings of Indians". Beruni who was considered the most authoritative astrologist lived in India for some period with Mahmud Geznavi and wrote his following book "Hindistan" (India).
In 1030 Mahmud Geznavi died. His son succeeded the throne and that bettered Beruni's life. During his rule the savant wrote his big work on astronomy "Law of Masud" and dedicated it to the ruler. The scholar finished his other two works "Mineralogy" and "Pharmacogonazv" within the ruling period (1041-1049) of Mavdud the son of Masud.
In 1048 Beruni died in Gezna. The scientist made a rare contribution to astronomy, astrology, mathematics, geodesy, mineralogy, geography, arithmetic, medicine, pharmacy, history, philology and other sciences with his more than 160 words.
ABU ALI IBN SINA
Abu Ali Ibn Sino celebrated as Avisenna in Europe was engaged in almost all sciences of his time as an encyclopedist. In scientific literature there were mentioned more than 450 works of Ibn Sino. But unfortunately we inherited half or more.
Ibn Sina was born in the village of Afshan near Bukhara in 980. Later his father moved to Bukhara and there Ibn Sina was engaged in a lot of sciences under the influence of scientific environment. From his early age he surprised everyone with his rare talent and memory. It was the period of Samanids reign in Bukhara when he was young. In 999 the government of Samanids collapsed and the city was occupied by Qorahanids. At that time Ibn Sina had already commanded sciences and even was writing books.
At the beginning of the century Ibn Sina left for Horazm and got acquainted with the savants of Mamunis' palace. He was with Ibn Iroq, Abu Rayhan, Abu al-Hayr Hammar Masihi and wrote several books. But he escaped to Iron when the government of Mahmud Geznavi threatened his activity. He wondered in cities of Iran like Jurjon, Ray, Isfara and died catching illness at 57 in Hamadan in 1037.
The scientist wrote several books like "The book of cure" ("Kitab ash-Shifa"), "Medicine Laws" ("Al-Qonun fi-t-tib"), "The book of Salvation" ("Kitab an-Najat"), "The book of Knowledge" ("Donishnoma") dedicated to medicine, philosophy and natural sciences. The master of great talent left ever last trace in philosophy and medicine. The masterpiece of Ibn Sina is "Ash-Shifa". It includes four books and 22 chapters.
Ibn Sina was renowned as a doctor (tabib) in all over the world. He got the height of the fame with his "Medicine Laws". This work is considered a rare collection of medicine sciences in its gist. It consists of five books and comprehensively covers definite spheres each.
The scholar also studied and wrote about mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, mineralogy, geology, botanic, philology, poetry and other branches of science.
Imom Burhonuddin Abu-1-Hasan Ali ibn Abu Bakr ibn Abdu-I-Jalil al-Fargoni al-Marginoni was born in Rishton, the city of Margilon in 1123 and died in Samarqand in 1197. We all know that the ideas and theories on religious legislation of the scientists from our land who were well-awared of fiqh (jurisprudence) have been exercised in the whole Islamic world. Among such scholars al-Marginoni has a particular place. Marginoni was taught by famous and gifted scholars. His great talent and consecutive activity led him to the Hanafl scholarship and he was honored the title of Sheikhul-Islam. Marginoni is the author of more than 10 books and each of them has scientific significance. They include "Nashrul-Mazhab" (Spreading of devisions), "Mazidun fil-furuil-Hanafia" (Addition to fiqh branches of Hanafi) and commentaries to Muhammad ibn Hasan-ash Shayboni's "Al-jomi-al-Kabir". More over the author wrote "Bidojatu-1-Mubtadi" as an abridged juristic book joining ash-Shaiboni's work "Al-Jomi'u-s-saghir" and al-Quduri's work "Muhtasar". However he wrote a large eight volume- commentary to "Bidoyatul-Mubtadi" considering its too conciseness and named it "Kifoyatul-Muhtahi". Laknavi wrote that Marginoni fasted 13 years while writing the work. Burhoniddin Marginoniy verified not only opinions of Hanafi, Moliki, Shoshi and Hanbali, but also of Zohiri and Avzoi in "Al-Hidoya" and gave his stance point.
This book can be considered as a particular practical work of "comparative right" which appeared as a new subject lately. "Al-Hidoya" has been serving as one of the authentic sources for the whole Islamic world especially middle Eastern countries, Indian peninsula, Turkey and most Arabic countries for 8 centuries. "Al-Hidoya" which was left by our great countryman is a valuable reference book for the development of juridical subjects including legislative system in Uzbekistan. Its translation from Arabic into Uzbek (I volume) was published in 2000.
(died in 868)
Abu Abdulloh Hakim at Termizi was one of the outstanding muhaddithes, faqihs and sheikhs of tasawwuf. The year of Tirmizi's birth is not known. There are various references to his death date, e.g. in a book "Qamusu-1-a'lam" it was 255 AH, in Shamsiddin Zahabi's work "Siar alami-n-nubala" it's said that he acted as muhaddith in Naisabur in 285 AH.
He lived in Transoxiana by his 25, later he stayed in Baghdad to continue his learning when he was on his way to Hajj. Later he chose tasawwuf (wayfaring) and read the book of a famous sufi al-Intoki about taqwa (God-Consciousness). That book impressed him deeply and taught him to give up vain desires and to be isolated. From that time he was absorbed into tasavvuf (wayfaring). Having deepknowledge Al-Hakim at-Tirmizi spoke about the shortcoming of some scholars. His idea was full of good sense. He cameto conclusion that people commentarying the signs of the Quran and Hadith conscientiously, considering fiqh matterssensibly are only mutasawifs and said one should serve Islam only impassively and not for interest. He suffered torment and instigation because he told his ruthless and decisive opinions. He was turned out of his motherland. He conversed with mutasawifs of Sham, Baghdad andEgypt and enriched tasawwuf of Central Asia. Among his works "Navodiru-1-usul" dedicated to hadith, "Urs-ul-Muvahhiddin", "Hatmu-1-viloyya" to Islamic doctrine.
It's worth saying that among his disciples there were Abu Ali ai-Juzjoni and Abu Bakr al-Varroq.
Sheikh's mausoleum is in Amudaria coast of Termiz and is always given an honour by visitors.
The famous sufi from Bukhara Muhammad lbn Naqshband who was known by a nickname Baha-ul Haqqi Vaddin in the second decade of XIV century founded "Naqshband" tariqa (way).
He was engaged in weaving brocade with his father and skillfully patterned silk, thus brought to his penname "Naqshband". Muhammad Boqir who wrote about Bohouddin notified that Bahouddin Naqshband grew bean and barley and lived on it.
Science of tasawwuf which began developing from the 9th century reached it's up level in 12-13 centuries and became perfect in Naqshbandi way. Naqshbandi's most well-known phrase "Oil ba yoru dast ba kor" (i.e. let the heart be busy with Allah and the hand with work) showed that the science of tasawwuf reached its main goal, namely, the truth settle in the hearts steadily and practical attempt is going up to the first place. Most of his followers, caliphs and admirers left different books revealing these methods in their works. In the list of these people we can find the names of Hoja Ubaidillo Ahrar, Hoja Muhammad Porso, Mahdum, Azam and Abdurahmon Jami. He asserted that to reach Allah, to recognize the Truth, a salik's (believer) heart should always be busy with God and hands with work noting that one must live in the society, be among people and look up to people's interests prior to his own ones.
Naqshband teaching gradually affected on Turkistan, Khorasan and from 16-17 centuries on South Asia because of its vitality, simplicity and practicality. Its influence can obviously be seen in literature from 15th century till this time, e.g., this is implied in Abdurahmon Jami's and Alisher Navai's poetry and teachings.
ABU ISO MUHAMMAD AT-TIRMIZI
Imam At-Tirmizi was born in Termiz in 824. He differed from the people of his age with the power of his memorizing ability and unique talent. He acquired both religious and secular knowledge, especially the knowledge of Hadith. He also received education from the famous muhaddiths when he lived in Khorasan, Isfahan, Iraq, Makkah and Madinah for many years in search of knowledge. He died in the village of Bugh near Termiz in 892 and was buried there.
There are nearly ten works by Imom At-Tirmizi and the scholar's masterpiece among them "Al-Djomi Al-Kabir" ("A Big Collection") is famous as "Sunnan of At-Tirmidhi". Moreover, his work "Ash-Shamoil An Nabaviyya" which is devoted to the great features of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is also of paramount importance. The work "Sunan" which is considered to be one of the six sahih works and contains sahih Hadiths of our Prophet is highly valued in the Muslim world. The given main source is translated into a number of languages, particularly into Uzbek (only the first volume). In 1990 the 1200th anniversary of Imam At-Tirmizi was celebrated and on the occasion of his jubilee the existing mausoleum of the scholar in the Surkhondarya province was reconstructed to a certain extent. And in 2000, on the occasion of the 2500th anniversary of Termiz city, the historical truth was renovated, and a modest mausoleum of the great muhaddith was completely rebuilt and a beautiful modern memorial complex was created. One of the important works of the scholar "Ash-Shamoil An-Nabaviyya" consists mainly of two parts. In the first part of the work there are hadiths devoted to the appearance of the Prophet (pbuh) and in the second part of it there are hadiths about the inner world and great moral features of this person. This valuable work is translated into Uzbek and published in thousands of copies. Besides, there is a wonderful manuscript copy of "Ash-Shamoil An-Nabaviyya" in Tashkent.
ABU MANSUR AL-MOTURIDI
There is no exact information about the year of Abu Mansur Muhammad Al-Moturidi As-Samarqandi's birth. In the "Islamic Encyclopedia" his birth year is given as 870. Therefore, the 1130th anniversary of Moturidi was celebrated in 2000.
The exact information about the date of his death is considered 333 AH. It coincides with the year 944 ВС.
The fact that the grave of Sheikh Abu Mansur Al-Moturidi is in the "Chokardiza" cemetry of Samarqand city has been proved on the basis ofreliable sources and scientific investigations.
Sheikh Abu Mansur Moturidi's teacher Imam Azam was the disciple of Abu Hanifa ,so he brought the teachings of Hanafiya into a new stage in its turn. He is the scholar who worked out the philosophy of Islamic faith.
Al-Moturidi's books, such as "Tavilotu Ahlis-Sunna" or "Tavilotul-Quran" and "Kitab at-Tavhid" are considered to be his masterpieces. He wrote raddiyas with the mental and naqly proofs to the shortcomings in the aqidavy view of different devisions and parties formed in that period.These two works have been preserving their importance.
The scholars of aqida who lived in the time of Moturidi relied on two main sources. The first source is the verses, hadiths , idioms and idjtihods, i.e., narrations of the companions of the Prophet and the second oneis mental facts. Sheikh Abu Mansur didn't imitate others but made a conclusion after harmonizing narrations with mental facts. By mental facts Philosophy, Logics and Natural Sciences are meant. In fact, a large number of the scholars of saiaf did not admit these facts and werelimited by sayings only. And Sheikh Abu Mansur al-Moturidi made use of the two relatively.
He was honored the name "Imomul-Hudo" ("Imam that brings to Hidoya"), "Imomul-Mutakallimin" ("Imam of the masters of the science of Kalom"), "Rabibu Ahli-Sunna" ("The person who got the education of the people of Sunnids").
Continuing the direction of Hanafiya-Sunna inthe abide science Abu Mansur Moturidi founded the school of Moturidiya after a lot of investigations. Thus he raised up a lot of followers.
Abu Ali-Abbos Ahmad Al-Farghani who was known as Alfraganus in Europe is a prominent representative of the sciences of astronomy, mathematics and geography of the Middle Ages.
It is supposed that Al-Farghani was born in 798 and died in 865. He received primary education in his motherland and formed as a scientist.
Later he moved to Baghdad and together with other scholars in the palace of Khalifa Al-Ma'mun worked in "Bait Al-Hikma" which was a famous Baghdad Scientific School in that place. He, together with the scientists who gathered in this school, took an active part in the astronomical observations held in the observatories of Baghdad and Damascus. Al-Farghani also participated in measuring one degree length of the Earth Meridian in the Sindjor desert in the North of Syria in 832-833.
Besides, there is much information about the fact that the scientist built a nilometer, an instrument to measure the depth of the water in the Nile River in the Island of Rovda near Kairo.
Ahmad Al-Farghani spent the last years of his life in Egypt and died there.
The main astronomic work of Al-Farghani is "The Collection of the science of the motion of the sky objects and stars" and it is known as "The Bases of the Science of Astronomy" and "The Element of Astronomy". The work is divided into 30 chapters and all main problems of astronomy are stated by simple and comprehensible words in them. Therefore, it was very soon translated into Latin, gained fame and served as the main text book on Astronomy at the Universities of Europe for many centuries.
Another work of Al-Farghani "To build Complete Northern and Southern Usturlob", with the help of Geometry and Arithmatic, made an important contribution to the development of theoretical imaginations about astronomical equipment and the formation of new ideas concerning Geometry.
Other works of Al-Farghani as "The book About the Use of Usturlob", "To Define the Time when the Moon is on or under the Earth", "To Build a Solar Clock", "To Explain Zidj of Al-Khorazmi" are also widely known.
One of the great representatives of Tasawouf Sheikh Nadjmiddin Kubro Ahmad Ibn Umar Ibn Muhammad Khivaqi was born in 1145 and grew up in the city of Khiva in the Khorezm province and achieved high results in the science. The Tasawouf school, founded by Kubro, was the reason of the emergance of several branches and these branches spread widely in the Muslim World. Nadjmiddin Kubro had been to many countries since his childhood, including Egypt. Here being a murid to the famous Sufi sheikh Buzbekhon Vazzon Al-Misri he stepped on the hard stages of arithmetic under the observation of this person. After gaining his faith in him Nadjmiddin Kubro got married to his daughter and gave birth to two sons. Then he went to Tabriz and learned Sunna and the science of Kalom from Imam Abu Mansur Hafda. He wrote his work "Sharhu Sunna Val-Masolif" on this science. Kubro received education from the famous sheikhs of his time as Bobo Faradj Tabrizi, Amor Yosir and Ismoil Kasri. He learned the rules of each tariqa from them and having put on a Khirqa from the hands of Kasri he came back to the place of Ruzbekhon Misri. Then by the advice of his Murshid he came back to Khorezm with his family and founded the tariqa of "Kubraviya" which was also called "Golden tariqa". He was given the title of "Shaikhi Valitarosh" - "Sheikh who raises up Valis". He had famous followers such as Madjiduddin Baghdadi, Sa'duddin Hamavy, Saifuddin Bokharzi, Nadjmiddin Rozi and Roziyuddin Ali Lolo. Kubro's works reach 15 in the number. One of them is "The things I saw with the eyes of my heart", and it was translated into Uzbek and published. The "Kubraviya" tariqa founded by Kubro relies on 10 main rules and these rules are explained in his work "Risolatut-Turuq" (The book about the ways of reaching Allah).
In his works he speaks about the great ideas of keeping one's conscience always awake and mind alive by controlling one's hunger and raising the spirit to the highest degree freeing them all from evil.
The teachings of Sheikh influenced all the tasawouf trends. He was killed by the enemy in 1221 when he was fighting against Mongols in order to defend his motherland Khorezm and was buried in the territory of this city.
Abul-Qosim Ibn Umar Az-Zamakhshari (1075-1144) was born in the Zamakhshar village of Khorezm on the 27th of Radjab, 467 AH,i.e. on the 18th of March, 1075. He received primary education from his father, Umar Ben Akhmad. Then, having received education from the great scholars of his time in Urgench and Bukhara he several times travelled to Khoroson, Iraq, Shorn and Arabia.
During his trips to different countries he did not only get knowledge from the scholars, but also taught Adab, Navhu-sarf, Sunna and Tafsir and made a lot of disciples . At the end of his life Mahmud Zamakhshari came back to Khorezm and died at the age of 69 in Urgench in the month of Zul-hidjja, 538 AH, i.e. on the eve of June, 1144.
The great scholar Mahmud Zamakhshari created more than 60 works during his fruitful life. They are the works on Tafsir Studies, Linguistics, Dictionary writing, Literature, Folklore, Philosophy, History of Islam, Geography and other sciences. Many works created by this writer have been preserved up to our time. But there are such works by him the names of which are known but they have not been found yet. He was respectably nicknamed as "Ustozul-arab va-1-adjam", "Pride of Khorezm", "Djorulloh", i.e. "Neighbour of Allah" for his rich scientific heritage.
In the Arabic sources it is said that if there had not been for Mahmud Zamakhshari the Arabic people wouldn't have known their mother language perfectly. And this is a great mark given to the heritage of Zamakhshari.
The bright pearls of the scientific heritage of Zamakhshari are the works such as "Al-Mufassal" (Perfect Work on Grammar), "Al-Kashshof (Tafsir of Qur'an), "Atvoqu-z-zahab" (Golden leaves of Advice), "Mukaddamatu-1-adab" (The basis of Adab science). Especially, his tafsir "Al-Kashshof have been a text-book in the Muslim countries up to now.
Mahmud Zamakhshari's creative activity and his works are worth praising and his rich heritage needs a deep and complete study.
Mahmud Zamakhshari's being an encyclopedic scientist and especially a scholar in the sphere of Philology with no match for him was stated even during his lifetime.
(died in 1142)
Khadja Abdulkholik Gijduvoni is the founder and theorist of a big tariqa of tasawouf, Khodjagon tariqa. The essence of his teaching is described in such works as "Manoqibi Khodja Yusuf Hamadoni", "Ibtidoi Djome Ul-Kalom", "Vasiyatnoma", "Maslak Ul-Orifin", "Risolai tariqat", "Risolai sahobiya", "Risolai Shaikh Ush-Shuyukh Hazrati hodja Abu Yusuf Hamadoni", "Maksad Us-Solikin" va "Odobi tariqat". The teaching he founded became the basis for the Naqshbandi Tariqa. The Slogan "Let the work always be in your hands and Allah in your heart" is the main essence of the teaching founded by Abdulkholik Gidjduvoni . Abdulkholik Gidjduvoni was born in the family of Imam in Gidjduvan near Bukhara. When he was 22 years old he came to Bukhara. Here Abdulkholik met with famous sufi Abu Yaqub Yusuf Hamadoni (died in 1140), joined his tariqa and accepted the hirqa of Sufism from him. The teaching of Malomatiya and the movement of Kalandariya made a considerable influence on the formation of his outlook.
In several of his books which are not big in size he, being a true Muslim, was in the sufi tariqa in practice and came out against "bid'a"s which were coming into tasawouf and which might be rejected by following the Laws and rules of Sharia and the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh). He established Zekr happening repeatedly in hearts. And this was to bring people to understand the world deeply and to put the Uzbek proverb "Cut once after measuring seven times" into practice. He recommends his friends to keep themselves from being under the hands of rulers when they enter their service. Abdulkholik did not approve of building khonaqos and living in them.
Abdulkholik Gidjduvoni's works, such as "Risolai tariqat", "Risolai Sahobia" and "Vasiyatnoma" have not been investigated and are awaiting their researchers.